Sunday, March 28, 2010

Form 4 Assessment - Open Source & Latest Development in ICT

Ini adalah tugasan anda bagi topik Computer System. Ia adalah tugasan individu yang mesti dibuat secara bertulis (berbentuk folio). Sila ikut kandungan & format yang diberikan ini.

1. Acknowledgment

2. Content

3. Introduction
3.1. Definition Open Source
3.2. Definition Software
3.3. Definition Open Source Software

4. Latest Open Source Operating System
4.1. Definition Open Source Operating System
4.2. Example + Picture + Explanation + Year - Two Example

5. Latest Open Source Application System
5.1. Open Source Application System
5.2. Example + Picture + Explanation + Year - Two Example

6. Latest Hardware in ICT
6.1. Example + Picture + Explanation+ Year (old hardware in same field)
6.2. Example + Picture + Explanation + Year (new hardware in same field)

7. Latest Software in ICT
7.1. Example + Picture + Explanation + Year (old software in same field)
7.2. Example + Picture + Explanation + Year (new software in same field)

8. Pervasive Computing
8.1 Definition Pervasive Computing
8.2. Example ( Two Example + picture + explanation)

9. Conclusion

10. Reference

Format penulisan :
1. gunakan font times new roman (size 12) atau Arial (size 11)
2. Paragraph spacing

Tarikh hantar : 12 April 2010

Pervasive Computing


The idea that technology is moving beyond the personal computer to everyday devices with embedded technology and connectivity as computing devices become progressively smaller and more powerful.
Also called ubiquitous computing

Penerangan cikgu Shahrul :

Pervasive computing ni bermaksud, teknologi komputer yang terdapat pada peralatan lain yang biasa digunakan seharian (tetapi bukan komputer)
Peralatan yang mempunyai mikrocip, yang mempunyai arahan yang diprogramkan juga dikenali sebagai pervasive computing.

Antaranya ialah :
1. mesin basuh automatik
2. mp3 player
3. i-Pod
4. Smart-tag
5. Smart phone
6. Astro Decoder
7. GPS device
8. Blood pressure tester
8. dan lain-lain lagi................

Open Source & Computer System

Definition Open Source

Generically, open source refers to a program in which the source code is available to the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge.
Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community. Open source sprouted in the technological community as a response to proprietary software owned by corporations.

Penerangan cikgushahrul :

Open source ni benda yg free, yang boleh dpt secara percuma. Biasanya ia boleh diperolehi dengan memuat turun program tersebut.

Dalam dunia ICT, Open Source (sumber terbuka) boleh dikategorikan kepada beberapa kategori, antaranya Open Source Operating System, Open Source Application System dan Open Source Utility System.

Jika andatelah mempelajari topik Software, anda tentu faham tentang 3 jenis software yang saya nyatakan tadi.

Operating System :

The most important program that runs on a computer.
Ia adalah perisian utama yang membolehkan komputer berfungsi, tanpa Operating System, sesebuah komputer tidak akan dapat digunakan. Ia ibarat enjin bagi sesebuah kenderaan.

Application System :

Programs that designed for end user (end-user program).
Ia adalah perisian aplikasi, iaitu program yang kita gunakan untuk membuat sesuatu tugas.
Ada beberapa jenis iaitu : Word Processing, Presentation, Database, Desktop Publishing, Web Browser dll.
Application system ini juga terbahagi kepada Open Source dan Proprietary.

Utility Programs :

Programs that perform special task, to managing system resources.
Ia adalah perisian yang khusus untuk menjalankan tugas-tugas khas. Ibaratnya adalah untuk "menjaga" komputer. Ada tiga jenis iaitu Disk Managing, Antivirus & Compression.
Utility system ini juga terbahagi kepada Open Source dan Proprietary.

Lawan kepada Open Soure ialah Proprietary, iaitu berbayar (paid software). ia bermaksud software yang dijual dan perlu dibeli jika hendak menggunakannya.

Tuesday, March 9, 2010

Computer Hardware

Input Devices

When data is entered into the computer system, it is called an input. Input comes in various forms; texts, graphics, audio and video. Input devices are needed to input data into the computer system.

Keyboard, mouse, scanner, barcode reader and digital camera are some example of input devices.


Output is data that has been processed into a useful form, called information. There are four types of output, which are texts, graphics, audio and video.

The text consists of characters that are used to create texts, sentences and paragraphs.

Graphics are digital representations of non text information such as drawings, charts and photographs.

Audio is music, speech or any other sound. Video consists of images that provide the appearance of full motion

Output Devices

Output is the result of raw input data that has been processed by the central processing unit into meaningful information. Common forms of output are texts, numbers, graphics, sounds, animations and videos.The most common output devices are computer screens, speakers and printers.

Storage Device

The system’s primary storage, Random Access Memory (RAM) can only hold data temporarily. Thus, secondary storage is needed to provide additional storage. The data stored in the secondary storage is considered permanent until it is deleted or removed.

Secondary storage can be magnetic disks and optical disks. Examples of secondary storage are hard disks, rewritable CDs and DVDs as well as removable disks such as pen drives

Peripheral Device
External hardware devices attached to the computer are called peripheral equipments


The central processing unit or the CPU is the brain of the computer.

All processing activities are done in the CPU. It utilises the computer memory to execute instructions from the application software and accomplish a task. For example: editing a letter, drawing a picture and sorting numbers.

The processor must be connected to input devices, output devices and storage devices to carry out the above mentioned tasks.


Input is any data or instructions that we enter into the computer system for processing.

There are some common ways of feeding input data into the system, which are:

typing on a keyboard

pointing with a mouse

CPU accepts instruction from the user and translates the instruction into readable information (decode).


The processing unit controls all activities within the system. For every instruction, the control unit repeats a set of four basic operations called the machine cycle


Storage is a location which data, instruction and information are held for future use. Every computer uses storage to hold system software and application software.

When we issue a command to start the application software, the operating system locates the program in storage and loads it into memory.

A storage medium, also called secondary storage is the physical material in the computer that keeps data, instruction and information.

A storage device is the computer hardware that records or retrieves items to and from storage media.


Computer System

A computer system is defined as combination of components designed to process data and store files.

A computer system consists of four major hardware components; input devices, output devices, processor and storage devices.

A computer system requires hardware, software and a user to fully function.

Software refers to set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Software can also have various other functions such as performing computation, communication with other software and human interaction.

User refers to a person who uses the computer for any purposes such as work, business and entertainment.


Computer Block Cycle Diagram


A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are:
  • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
  • Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.

    All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:

  • memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.
  • mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.
  • input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer.
  • output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished.
  • central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.
  • In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another.

    Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there is considerable overlap:

  • personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.
  • workstation : A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.
  • minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously.
  • mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
  • supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.