Sunday, November 25, 2007

What is Multimedia ?

Multimedia is nothing but the processing and presentation of information in a more structured and understandable manner using more than one media such as text, graphics, animation, audio and video.

Thus multimedia products can be an academic presentation, game or corporate presentation, information kiosk, fashion-designing etc. Multimedia systems are those computer platforms and software tools that support the interactive uses of text, graphics, animation, audio, or motion video.

In other words, a computer capable of handling text, graphics, audio, animation and video is called multimedia computer. If the sequence and timing of these media elements can be controlled by the user, then one can name it as Interactive Multimedia.

Saturday, November 24, 2007


We all know that the Internet is a cool place to hang with friends and check out new things. But don't forget about the Internet's risks and dangers. If you're going to use the Web, do it safely! Here are some suggestions on what you should and shouldn't be doing online to help protect you against the bad stuff.

Be careful online.

Never reveal personally - identifiable information online.

A lot of creeps use the Internet to take advantage of other people, especially kids and teens. Never reveal any personally-identifi able able information online, whether it's on your profile page or in a blog, chatroom, instant messenger chat or email.

· Always use a screen name instead of your real name.

· Never give out your address, telephone number, hangout spots or links to other websites or pages where this information is available.

· Be careful about sending pictures to people you do not know very well.

· Never tell people personal or private information about your friends or family.

· Never assume you're completely anonymous online. Even if you don't put personal information online, there are different ways that people can still figure out who you are and where you live.

Never share your password with other people (except for your parents).

Your passwords to websites, email accounts and instant messenger services should not be shared with friends or strangers. Your friends may not be as safe as you are and may unknowingly subject you to danger. You should, however, share your passwords with your parents if they ask so they can make sure you're using the Internet safely.

Never arrange meetings with strangers.

Just because you've seen a person's picture and read his or her profile, does not mean you know them. Many people online lie about who they are and what their intentions are. Just because someone seems nice online, does not mean they really are. They could be trying to hurt you. Never arrange a meeting with a stranger you've met online. Even meeting a stranger in a crowded place could be dangerous as he could follow you home. If you wish to meet an online friend in person, talk to your parents and arrange a time and place where your friend can meet your parents first, just in case. If you are worried about your parents meeting one of your online friends, you probably shouldn't be friends with them in the first place.

Don't believe everything you read or see online.

Be wary of everything you see online unless it is from a trusted source. People lie about their age, who they are, what they look like, where they live, how they know you and what their interests are. Also, a lot of websites and emails contain information that is misleading or just plain untrue. If a person or deal sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Ask your parents to help you figure out what information is really true.

Don't download files or software without your parents' permission.

There are a lot of files on the Internet that are unsafe to download to a computer. Some files will bombard you with pop-up ads all day long. Some files will actually track everything you and your family does on your computer, including your logins, passwords and credit card information, which criminals then use to steal money from you and do other harm. There is no easy way to tell which files are bad and which are ok to download. That free desktop wallpaper you want to download might also steal your parents' credit card information. Ask your parents before you download any files or software from the Internet.

Don't respond to inappropriate messages or emails.

Some people send inappropriate messages just to see if you will respond. If you do, you are simply encouraging them to send more inappropriate material to you. Don't respond to inappropriate messages. Instead, talk to your parents about how to report them to the right place. Most of the time, it is the response you give that confirms that you e-mail address is active.

Don't post inappropriate content.

. If you post information about tennis, you will attract people who are interested in tennis. If you post inappropriate content or pictures, you will attract people who have inappropriate interests. If you post jokes, photos or other content that contain sexual references you will probably attract people who are only interested in talking about sex. Be mindful of what you are communicating to the rest of the online world through the content you put onto the Internet.

Be leery of personal questions from strangers.

People you don't know who ask personal questions are often up to no good. Don't continue communicating with strangers who ask you personal questions. Talk to your parents about how to block them from communicating with you and report them to the right place.

Don't be bullied into fights.

People tend to say things online that they would never say in person. Some people even say rude and malicious things, sometimes just to see if you will respond. Don't respond to these people. Instead, talk to your parents about how to block them from communicating with you and report them to the right place.

Don't use adult sites.

There are some websites that kids just should not use. Don't use websites that contain adult content or that facilitate communication with older adults. No matter how much you think you know about the Internet, there are some people and places you just aren't ready to deal with. Enjoy websites that are designed for people your own age.

Understand what you put online will be there forever.

Assume that everything you put online--- every email you write, every picture you post, every blog or journal entry you post--- will be accessible on the Internet forever. Many search engines copy Internet pages and save them for viewing even after the pages are no longer online. Think about that before you post anything online. Do you really want pictures or blog entries to be seen 10 years from now?

Understand online risks.

Talk to your parents about what you do online.

Even though you may know more about computers and the Internet than your parents, they understand online risks better than you. Be open with your parents about how you use the Internet. Answer any questions they have honestly and completely. Talk with your parents about the websites you visit. Tell them about the people you meet online. Tell them what you know about online safety and how you make sure you stay safe while using the Internet. Listen to your parents' concerns. They're only trying to make sure you're safe.

Teach your parents about computers and the Internet.

It is natural to fear the unknown. You've grown up using computers and the Internet. Your parents probably didn't. You probably know a whole lot more about computers and the Internet than your parents. Teach your parents what you know. This is your chance to show them something for a change. If your parents understand how to use computers and the Internet better, they will probably feel more comfortable with you being online.

Follow the Internet use rules your parents and school have established.

If your parents or school establish rules on your Internet use--- the websites you can visit, where you can use the Internet, how long you can be online, etc.--- follow them. They understand online risks better than you and know what you are and aren't ready for online. Don't try to circumvent or disable the safety tools they may have implemented on your home or school computers. Don't try to get around their restrictions by using computers at other locations. If you don't think a particular policy is reasonable, talk to them and explain why. If your parents and/or school trusts that you are adhering to the rules they have implemented, they will probably feel more comfortable in relaxing them.

Friday, November 23, 2007

The Computer Chronicles

In the beginning ...
A generation refers to the state of improvement in the development of a product. This term is also used in the different advancements of computer technology. With each new generation, the circuitry has gotten smaller and more advanced than the previous generation before it. As a result of the miniaturization, speed, power, and memory of computers has proportionally increased. New discoveries are constantly being developed that affect the way we live, work and play.

The First Generation: 1946-1958 (The Vacuum Tube Years)
The first generation computers were huge, slow, expensive, and often undependable. In 1946two Americans, Presper Eckert, and John Mauchly built the ENIAC electronic computer which used vacuum tubes instead of the mechanical switches of the Mark I. The ENIAC used thousands of vacuum tubes, which took up a lot of space and gave off a great deal of heat just like light bulbs do. The ENIAC led to other vacuum tube type computers like the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) and the UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer).

The vacuum tube was an extremely important step in the advancement of computers. Vacuum tubes were invented the same time the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison and worked very similar to light bulbs. It's purpose was to act like an amplifier and a switch. Without any moving parts, vacuum tubes could take very weak signals and make the signal stronger (amplify it). Vacuum tubes could also stop and start the flow of electricity instantly (switch). These two properties made the ENIAC computer possible.

The ENIAC gave off so much heat that they had to be cooled by gigantic air conditioners. However even with these huge coolers, vacuum tubes still overheated regularly. It was time for something new.

The Second Generation: 1959-1964 (The Era of the Transistor)
The transistor computer did not last as long as the vacuum tube computer lasted, but it was no less important in the advancement of computer technology. In 1947 three scientists, John Bardeen, William Shockley, and Walter Brattain working at AT&T's Bell Labs invented what would replace the vacuum tube forever. This invention was the transistor which functions like a vacuum tube in that it can be used to relay and switch electronic signals.

There were obvious differences between the transisitor and the vacuum tube. The transistor was faster, more reliable, smaller, and much cheaper to build than a vacuum tube. One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. These transistors were made of solid material, some of which is silicon, an abundant element (second only to oxygen) found in beach sand and glass. Therefore they were very cheap to produce. Transistors were found to conduct electricity faster and better than vacuum tubes. They were also much smaller and gave off virtually no heat compared to vacuum tubes. Their use marked a new beginning for the computer. Without this invention, space travel in the 1960's would not have been possible. However, a new invention would even further advance our ability to use computers.

The Third Generation: 1965-1970 (Integrated Circuits - Miniaturizing the Computer)
Transistors were a tremendous breakthrough in advancing the computer. However no one could predict that thousands even now millions of transistors (circuits) could be compacted in such a small space. The integrated circuit, or as it is sometimes referred to as semiconductor chip, packs a huge number of transistors onto a single wafer of silicon. Robert Noyce of Fairchild Corporation and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments independently discovered the amazing attributes of integrated circuits. Placing such large numbers of transistors on a single chip vastly increased the power of a single computer and lowered its cost considerably.

Since the invention of integrated circuits, the number of transistors that can be placed on a single chip has doubled every two years, shrinking both the size and cost of computers even further and further enhancing its power. Most electronic devices today use some form of integrated circuits placed on printed circuit boards-- thin pieces of bakelite or fiberglass that have electrical connections etched onto them -- sometimes called a mother board.

These third generation computers could carry out instructions in billionths of a second. The size of these machines dropped to the size of small file cabinets. Yet, the single biggest advancement in the computer era was yet to be discovered.

The Fourth Generation: 1971-Today (The Microprocessor)
This generation can be characterized by both the jump to monolithic integrated circuits(millions of transistors put onto one integrated circuit chip) and the invention of the microprocessor (a single chip that could do all the processing of a full-scale computer). By putting millions of transistors onto one single chip more calculation and faster speeds could be reached by computers. Because electricity travels about a foot in a billionth of a second, the smaller the distance the greater the speed of computers.

However what really triggered the tremendous growth of computers and its significant impact on our lives is the invention of the microprocessor. Ted Hoff, employed by Intel (Robert Noyce's new company) invented a chip the size of a pencil eraser that could do all the computing and logic work of a computer. The microprocessor was made to be used in calculators, not computers. It led, however, to the invention of personal computers, or microcomputers.

It wasn't until the 1970's that people began buying computer for personal use. One of the earliest personal computers was the Altair 8800 computer kit. In 1975 you could purchase this kit and put it together to make your own personal computer. In 1977 the Apple II was sold to the public and in 1981 IBM entered the PC (personal computer) market.

Today we have all heard of Intel and its Pentium® Processors and now we know how it all got started. The computers of the next generation will have millions upon millions of transistors on one chip and will perform over a billion calculations in a single second. There is no end in sight for the computer movement.

Penyenggaraan PC dan Laptop


Sesebuah komputer hendaklah di jaga dengan rapi pada peralatan luar ( Hardware) dan peralatan dalaman (Software ) bagi memastikan ianya sentiasa berada didalam keaadaan baik dan boleh digunakan pada bila-bila masa sahaja di perlukan. Untuk tujuan ini pemeriksaan hendaklah dibuat selalu sekurang-kurangnya 1 tahun sekali (servis)

Tujuan pemeriksaan ialah untuk;

(1) Untuk memanjangkan jangka hayat komputer.
(2) Memastikan komputer sentiasa dalam keadaan baik
(3) Memastikan hard disk komputer anda tidak dimasuki VIRUS


Peralatan minima yang anda perlukan untuk membuat pemeriksaan-pemeriksaan tersebut ialah

(1) Pencuci disket
(2) Blower/vacum
(3) Scru driver
(4) Alkhohol pencuci/putik kapas
(5) Berus


Penjagaan Hardware komputer anda sebenarnya sangat mudah dan boleh dilakukan sendiri oleh anda dengan hanya berbekal sedikit peralatan seperti tercatit di atas. Langkah yang perlu diambil ialah periksa kesemua peralatan Hardware komputer anda dan ikuti langkah di bawah.


(1) Cuci drive A dan B
(2) Scan hard disk
(3) Blower dalam komputer anda untuk membuang habuk-habuk
(4) Periksa kesemua peralatan komputer anda sekiranya longgar


Penjagaan dan pemeriksaan Hard disk komputer anda memerlukan sedikit kemahiran dan ketelitian kerana ianya melibatkan penggunaan software yang lain dan perlu dibuat secara berhati-hati agar tidak merosakkan sistem Hard Disk anda. Anda dinasihatkan merujuk kepada orangyang pakar dalam hal-hal berkaitan dengan komputer. Namun begitu dibawah ini diperturunkan sedikit maklumat atau tindakkan yang boleh dibuat untuk servis Hard Disk komputer anda. Itupun bergantung kepada pengetahuan anda.

(1) Scan VIRUS
(2) Buat BACKUP pada fail yang difikirkan perlu
(3) COPY/Program yang mustahak
(4) Gunakan Defrag untuk memeriksa lubang-lubang pada Hard Disk anda
(5) Periksa setiap Bad Track dalam hard disk anda


Anda dinasihatkan menggunakan Stabilizer untuk menstabilkan aliran letrit yang masuk kedalam sistem komputer anda supaya tiada ganguan yang mungkin merosakkan Hard Disk Anda. Di dalam Hard Disk anda juga akan sentiasa dipenuhi dengan fail-fail TMP (Fail sementara) dan fail BAK (fail backup) kerana fail-fail ini sentiasa dibuat oleh komputer anda. Untuk mengelak dari terjadinya kesempitan ruang pada muatan Hard Disk anda Cari dan bersihkan hard disk komputer anda dari fail-fail tersebut. Dan guna perentah DELETE untuk membuangnya ataupung gunakan perintah Defrag bagi membersihkanya..

Fail : TMP - Fail sementara - boleh dibuang DEL * TMP/S atau TMP ???.?? Fail : BAK - perlu dibuang untuk membersihkan hard disk - guna DEFRAG/NDD


DISK DRIVE Hendaklah dicuci sebaiknya 1 minggu sekali. Gunakan pencuci drive yang terdapat dipasaran. Anda juga boleh menggunakan putik kapas untuk memcuci kepala disk drive anda dengan mengunakan cecair alkohol pencuci kepala radio kaset anda.


Gunakan plug point 240 V untuk keselamatan komputer anda Jika keaadaan penhataran karan dirumah anda tidak stabil anda dinasihatkan menggunakan penstabil eletrik (stablilazer)


Periksa kesemua sambungan plug untuk memastikan komputer bagi memastikan komputer anda sentiasa menerima karen yang sempurna.


(a) Mother Board - kemaskan cip yang longgar dan cuci habuk-habuk mengguna blower pada keseluruhan Cip yang terdapat pada Mother Board
(b) Card & Adaptar - kemaskan Cip-Cip yang longgar
(c) Fan condition - pastikan ianya berfungsi (berputar)
(d) Batery - gunakan beteri yang betul (mesti antara 4-5 v)


(1) Gunakan perintah DIR untuk memastikan ianya berfungsi atau tidak
(2) Gunakan perintah DISK COPY untuk menyalin kedisket lain sekiranya disket tersebut rosak
(3) Gunakan SCAN DISK untuk pemerisaan disket
(4) Gunakan NDD untuk membaiki disket yang mungkin rosak
(5) Perintah Format digunakan sebagai jalan terakhir untuk mengetahui samada Disket itu berfungsi atau tidak . Jika masih tidak berfungsi disket tersebut bolehlah dibuang kerana ianya tidak boleh digunakan lagi.


(1) Periksa kesemua kekunci samada berfungsi atau tidak.
(2) Terbalikkan keyboard anda dan ketuk perlahan-lahan untuk membuang habuk.
(3) Gunakan QAPLUS untuk memeriksa kesemua kekunci keyboard anda.


(1) Simpan manual printer untuk rujukan. Jika setnya tidak betul akan keluar huruf yang tidak sepatutnya.
(2) Jaga kepala printer Set kedudukan bersesuaian dengan jenis kertas yang digunakan samada nipis atau tebal.
(3) Elakkan printer menggunakan stensel.


Printer anda perlu dijaga dan diberi perhatian selalu kerana dengan ketiadaan printer atau keaadaan printer yang tidak berfungsi ianya akan menjadikan kerja-kerja anda tidak dapat dicetak keluar. Adalah tidak sukar bagi melaksanakan penjagaan printer kerana ianya kebanyakan melibatkan penjagaan luaran sahaja. Setiap kali anda ingi servis komputer anda ikuti lamngkah berikut.

(1) Buka dan bersihkan kesemua bahagian dalam printer gunakan blower.
(2) Jika ia berbunyi kuat periksa tin pelapik dan tolakkan supaya lebih
rapat dengan kepala printer.
(3) Pastikan mata printer mempunyai 24 jarum - jika patah gantikan
dengan yang baru.
(4) Bersihkan tempat laluan kepala printer supaya mudah berfungsi.



Sesebuah komputer sebenarnya sentiasa di ancam oleh serangan Virus-virus komputer samaada yang di biakan melalui disket ataupun internet. Proses perlindunngan data komputer hendaklah selalu dibuat dan di kemaskinikan kerana serangan Virus akan mengakibatkan komputer anda mengalami masalah dan ada ketikanya gagal berfungsi terus. Perisian virus pula sering di cipta saban hari bagi mengangu pengoperasian komputer anda. Dan sebagai cabaranya pula anda hendaklah selalu memastikan komputer anda di lengkapi dengan program antivirus terbaru dan boleh membunuh kesemua virus yang bakal menyerang komputer anda.

Banyak perisian antivirus di keluarkan setiap hari untuk memastikan komputer anda sentiasa selamat dari ancaman Virus virus ini anda sebagai penguna hendaklah sentiasa memperbaharui program program anti virus tersebut. Saya di sini tidaklah bermaksud menulis panduan mengunakan antivirus tersebut kerana setiap antivirus yang di keluarkan akan di sertakan bersama prosedia penggunaanya. Walau bagaimana pun saya akan menunjukkan asa pengunaanya yang munkin tidak bayak berbeza antara satu dan yang lain.


Tugasan Masa Cuti

Kepada semua pelajar Tingkatan 4

Berikut adalah tugasan masa cuti yang perlu anda siapkan sebelum penggal persekolahan tahun 2008 bermula.

Tajuk : Multimedia in various field

Format penulisan

1. Introduction - definition of multimedia
2. Multimedia in education - explaination and example
3. Multimedia in medical / health - explaination and example
4. Multimedia in entertainment - explaination and example
5. Multimedia in business - explaination and example
6. Conclusion
7. Refference

Cara hantar : ke alamat email

Dateline : sebelum 1 Januari 2008


Assalamualaikum dan selamat sejahtera,

Selamat datang ke blog Cikgu Shahrul. Blog ini dibina sebagai salah satu elemen pengajaran dan pembelajaran berasaskan laman web dan internet.
Di sini, saya akan memuatkan nota-nota berkaitan mata pelajaran ICT tingkatan 4 dan 5 untuk kemudahan bersama, khususnya kepada para pelajar saya di SMK Jelapang Jaya.
Jadi, gunakan ia sebaiknya.